Manufacturing of Graphite Crucible
Graphite crucible is wide utilized in metallurgy, foundry, machinery, chemical industry and different industrial sectors for the smelting of alloy tool steels and therefore the smelting of non-ferrous metals and their alloys due to its excellent properties. And it’s a good technical and economic effect.
Advantages: high strength, good seismic resistance, hot temperature resistance, corrosion resistance, strong oxidation resistance, low resistivity.
Applications: industry, automotive petroleum, electronics, semiconductors, iron and steel, powder metallurgy, aerospace, scientific experiments and different industries.
Graphite Crucibles are refractory containers specially shaped for metallurgical operations. These are made of a mixture of graphite, Refractory Clay, rum and different additives. These crucibles are termed as clay bonded carbon crucibles according to the raw materials used. The crucibles are available with or without spout. These crucibles are used for melting ferrous, non-ferrous metals alloys and noble metals.
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A crucible could be a ceramic or metal container in which metals or different substances is also melted or subjected to very high temperatures. While crucibles historically were usually made up of clay, they will be made from any material that withstands temperatures high enough to melt or otherwise alter its contents.
Graphite material has the benefits of high machining accuracy and good surface impact, especially in precision, complex, thin wall, Compared with copper, graphite material has the benefits of less consumption, high discharge speed, light weight, small thermal growth coefficient, etc. Therefore, it’s become the mainstream of the discharge machining materials.
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High density graphite crucibles are utilized in vacuum
Inert atmosphere furnaces
Best suited crucibles for quality melting
High thermal conductivity
Heat shock resistance: Graphite crucible is strong, it can withstand high temperatures.
High heat resistance
Resistance to slag remover
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The Main Characteristics of Graphite Crucible are Listed as Follows:
High thermal conductivity: due to the use of graphite and other raw materials in high thermal conductivity, it ensures good thermal conductivity, shortens the time to dissolve and reduces energy consumption.
Heat shock resistance: the heat shock performance of graphite crucible is strong, it’s not easy to break for the urgent cold, urgent heat and any process.
High heat resistance： graphite crucible has figures as high temperature, it can be in high temperature resistant 1200~1600.
Corrosion Resistance ：uniform and fine matrix design graphite of crucible make it strong to erosion against melt and delay the erosion degree of the product.
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Anti-mechanical shock: graphite crucible has a certain impact on the strength of the impact of mechanical properties (such as the input of the molten material, etc.).
Oxidation resistance: Graphite is easy to be oxidized in the high temperature oxidation aerial fog, it has less consumption of oxidation due to the prevention of oxidation treatment.
Anti-adhesion: the soakage and adhesion of melt soup to graphite crucible is less because of the characteristics of graphite which is not easy to adhere with the melt soup.
The metal pollution control: graphite crucible isn’t be mixed with impurity which can pollute melting soup the because of strict control of the material composition and the rare metal contamination.
Resistance to slag remover (in addition to slag agent) effect: graphite crucible has a good resistance to slag (slag remover) effect.
Acid resistance: in the addition of special materials, we significantly improve the quality of the graphite crucible and make it has excellence performance in the acid resistance.
Quality stability: the production technology and quality assurance system of high pressure forming method of graphite crucible fully guarantee the stability of the quality.
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Use of Graphite Crucible
Graphite crucible is wide used for experiment and therefore the melting of metals, graphite crucible material with special of high purity, high strength, high density graphite material; through high exactness CNC machining equipment, will be machined graphite crucible, graphite casting crucible, graphite oil groove, slide, drawing tablets, pull rod of mould graphite product. Graphite crucible for smelting noble metals selected special graphite materials will build the graphite crucible product 2 times more than ordinary materials product durability, longer service life, a lot of will withstand more than 2000°C high temperature! Graphite crucible features:
1 good thermal stability of graphite crucible: for the use of graphite crucible quench.
2 graphite crucible good corrosion resistance, impact resistance, in order to ensure the reliability of product quality.
3 graphite crucible, good resistance to acid and alkali.
4 good heat conduction performance of graphite crucible: it can greatly shorten the smelting time, save energy.
5 the ash of the graphite crucible is less than 300pp, so that the precious metal is not polluted in the smelting process.
Mainly used in auto parts, electronics and new materials industry, graphite crucible is melting and holding non-ferrous metals and new materials resistant containers.
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Can also be used in the refining and purification of nonferrous metals and new materials.
For the benefit of environmental protection, the international efforts to improve the weight of light metals in industrial products.
Therefore, aluminium, magnesium, zinc and its alloys are widely used in the production of automobile, motorcycle and electronic products. If the engine cylinder cover die-casting production of automobile and motorcycle wheels, engine, brakes, air filter, piston, a radiator, a direction plate skeleton and electronic products in the mobile phone shell.
Manufacturing Process of Graphite Crucible
During the sintering process of graphite crucibles, the organizational structure of the green body has a series of changes, the changing part is mainly the plastic refractory clay. The basic process of the crucible sintering can be divided into the following four stages to illustrate:
Preheating and baking stage. The temperature at 100~300 degrees, it’s the process of graphite crucibles exclude residual moisture. The heating speed ought to slow and therefore the kiln roof should be open, it should control the temperature strictly especially once the graphite crucibles within the residual moisture content exceeds 3%, otherwise the crucibles can have the crack and it perhaps explode.
Low temperature firing stage: 400-600℃ is that the low temperature stage of sintering of the graphite crucible. With the rise of the temperature of the oven, the combination water within the crucible begins to decompose and take away. the main composition in clay are Al2O3 and SiO2, once shaped, they are within the free state, the glaze layer of crucible surface has not nevertheless unfrozen, heating speed should be still slow, if the heating speed is too quick and uneven, it conjointly prone to explode and therefore the collapse of the crucible bing .
Mesothermal sintering stage: 700-900℃ is that the Mesothermal sintering stage of graphite crucible. At this time, the amorphous Al2O3 in clay could also be partially converted into y crystalline Al2O3 once the kiln temperature gradually increased, the Al2O3 and Si0’exist within the Free State type hard salt cured material, it connect the graphite and clinker in crucible and so solidified into a whole. within the medium temperature sintering process, the surface glaze layer in graphite crucible melt with the increasing of temperature gradually and type a layer of glass like glaze film, enclosed or covered on the surface of the crucible, it defend the crucible from oxidization. During this era, it’s better to heat up quickly and therefore the original flame should be good in the kiln.
High temperature firing stage: The temperature of this stage temperature is iooo-1200cc. The clay in graphite crucible once sintering within the medium temperature type curing, step by step transformed into mullite, such as 3A1203+2Si07:3Al203’2Si0. (Mullite). Throughout this period, the heating rate should be faster than within the middle temperature (commonly known as the fireplace process), the chamber flame should be controlled within the neutral flame or reducing flame. The glaze layer has been completely melted throughout the crucible in warmth sintering process, forming a glass like glaze film, close to the crucible surface. If the temperature exceeds the maximum temperature limit of sintering glaze, it simply cause the oxidization of the crucible. Therefore, within the high temperature sintering method, we should observe the glaze layer melting condition of graphite crucible and avoid the burnt and not up to the sintering. Mullite (3A1203’2Si02), a senior Department of physical and chemical properties of refractory minerals and a stable. The density, hardness, refractoriness and softening purpose are terribly high, low coefficient of thermal growth. Within the structure of the crucible, it’s an important role of consolidation and hardening. It is far-famed that, within the crucible sintering method, because of the thermal effect of plastic refractory clay, the consolidation of graphite and clinker contains a certain mechanical strength. Therefore, high and low of the sintering temperature, temperature control within the process of operation, it’ll has an important influence to the quality and service lifetime of graphite crucible products.
Graphite crucibles are refractory containers specially formed for metallurgical operations. Graphite crucibles are made of a mixture of graphite, refractory clay, grog, and different additives. These crucibles are used for melting ferrous, non-ferrous metals, alloys, and noble metals.
The global graphite market was valued at $14.3 billion in 2019, and is expected to reach $21.6 billion by 2027, registering a CAGR of 5.3% from 2020 to 2027. Graphite is a mineral of carbon used in various applications such as electrical vehicle, refractories, foundry, lubricating agent, construction applications, and others. The increasing use of graphite in the above-mentioned industries is owing to its several advantages such as reduces wear, easy to machine, thermal shock resistant, high metal removal rate, and others. Graphite is a non-metal but possess metallic properties such as high stiffness, strength, good conductor of electricity & heat, and others. There are two different forms of graphite, which include natural graphite and synthetic graphite.
The global graphite market is driven by the high demand for lithium ion battery trade and significant production through graphite conductor electric arc furnace. However, increase in duty on graphite in China and decreasing value trend of natural graphite are the key factors that restrain the growth of the graphite market throughout the forecast period. Moreover, growth in usage in green technologies and merger & acquisitions activities are anticipated to provide lucrative growth opportunities for the key players to maintain the position in the market in the future years.
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Asia-Pacific has garnered the highest market share in 2019, in terms of volume as well as revenue, and is anticipated to maintain its dominance throughout the forecast period. This is often attributed to the presence of key players and huge consumer base in the region. In addition, more than 40% of the total market share in terms of value is from the best graphite production countries akin to India, and Japan.
As per an assessment, 8.5% growth in manufacturing plant and casting business is estimated across the world. Therefore, the utilization of graphite crucibles is anticipated to increase consequently. Development of modern small scale industries and positive outlook of the special casting metallurgical trade in countries in Asia Pacific is further estimated to drive the graphite crucibles market within the next few years.
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